HyperRHO® S/D [RhO (D) Immune Globulin (Human)]
for prevention of Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
HyperRHO® S/D for Prevention of Rh Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)
What is the Rh factor and why is it important during pregnancy?
The Rh factor is an antigen that is found on the surface of red blood cells. If you have these antigens on your red blood cells, you would be considered Rh positive. Those that do not are Rh negative.1
How can the Rh factor affect pregnancies?
Hemolytic disease of the newborn is caused when an Rh-negative woman is carrying an Rh-positive baby. If the father is Rh positive, there is a good chance the baby will be too. If the baby's blood comes into contact with the mother's blood, the mother's immune system will consider it a foreign entity and begin to create antibodies to attack the foreign Rh-positive blood cells. This response is called isoimmunization.1
When is there a risk of blood exchange?
The exchange of blood usually occurs during delivery, but can happen during a miscarriage, amniocentesis, or as a result of an injury or trauma. There have been instances though, where women develop antibodies to Rh-positive blood cells during pregnancy for no apparent reason.1
What happens when a baby is born with HDN?
If a baby is born with HDN, the infant may suffer from jaundice, anemia, or have permanent damage to the brain and central nervous system. These symptoms can lead to mental retardation, hearing loss, or cerebral palsy.1
Is there treatment for HDN?
Extensive medical assistance may be necessary, including an exchange transfusion, which is where the baby's blood is replaced. By transfusing all of the baby's blood, the destruction of its red blood cells should stop, giving the baby a chance to survive.1
Can HDN be prevented?
Yes, prevention is key to protection. HyperRHO S/D is an immune globulin, which if administered properly can prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn, assuming that the mother does not already have Rh-positive antibodies in her system. HyperRHO S/D has high levels of specific antibodies against Rh-positive blood cells. When injected, HyperRHO S/D destroys any Rh-positive red blood cells that may have entered the mother's body. The injection also prevents the mother's immune system from further production of Rh-positive antibodies, hence protecting the baby from contracting hemolytic disease of the newborn.1
When should HyperRHO be administered?
Since laboratory findings have seen the development of Rh-positive antibodies during the final weeks of pregnancy, your doctor will probably suggest a first dose be given at 28 weeks' gestation. HyperRHO S/D should be administered again within 72 hours of delivery of an Rh-positive baby. For women undergoing spontaneous or induced abortion of up to 12 weeks' gestation, HyperRHO S/D Mini-Dose should be administered within 3 hours or as soon as possible following the abortion.1,2
- In the United States, the frequency of Rh D-negative status varies from about 17% in Caucasians to about 7% in Hispanics and African Americans. The frequency is much lower in people of Asian descent (including people from China, India, and Japan), averaging about 2%3
- Once a mother is sensitized, she can no longer receive immune globulin treatment for HDN. This is why it is crucial to have an Rh immune globulin such as HyperRHO S/D administered before the mother is exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells1
- An Rh-negative woman must be treated with an Rh immune globulin during each pregnancy4
- If an estimated 4 million births occur each year, approximately 4,000 of those infants will be victims of HDN5